Ahead of the upcoming landmark Conference of Parties (COP – 21) in Paris in December 2015, India’s positionwill be under close scrutiny by the domestic as well as the international community. Being the third largestemitter of carbon dioxide, India owes a critical responsibility to the global community to engage in greenhousegas reductions, both substantively as well as symbolically. Historically, India’s position in the internationalclimate negotiations has been shaped by the development and justice arguments. With about 289 million peopleliving below the poverty line1 and a rapidly rising population, India’s long-held position in the United Nationsclimate change negotiations has been that it cannot afford to compromise with its economic developmentpriorities by leaving its vast sections of economically vulnerable population in a lurch.Underlying this argument is the rationale that the atmospheric carbon space needs to be justly appropriated bythe countries, based on considerations of justice and equity, as set forth in the principle of Common ButDifferentiated Responsibilities and Respective Capabilities (CBDRRCs). There are two main arguments Indiahas put forward to undergird its position. First, historically, since the developed countries have appropriatedmassive amounts of carbon space in order to develop, they cannot now claim an equal share of it vis-a-vis thedeveloping countries. Second, presently, the distribution of emission rights should be determined in accordancewith the nature of emissions, that is, the survival emissions of the developing countries versus the luxuryemissions of the developed world2.